Florence Lam

Florence is Fellow and Director at the international design, engineering and business consulting firm, Arup. She leads Arup’s global lighting design practice. Her particular expertise include daylight, visual perception and holistic lighting approach, which play a key role when illuminating museums all over the world. Museum projects of significance include the New Acropolis Museum in Athens, Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, Museo Picasso in Malaga, California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas, Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, British Museum World Conservation Centre and Tate Modern in London, the Hepworth in Wakefield and the V&A Museum of Design in Dundee. She has co-authored in the publication of the RIBA Technical Review series on Lighting and a book called Space Craft on Developments in the Architectural Computing. Florence was named the Lighting Designer of the Year at the UK Lighting Design Awards in 2013. She is also the recipient of the Lighting Award from the Society of Light and Lighting in 2014. At the Museum Lighting Symposium, Florence will be discussing lighting in the New Acropolis Museum.

Stefan Michalski

Stefan is senior conservation scientist at the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI). For over 35 years, he has carried out research and provided advice on preservation for museums, galleries and archives, particularly on the topics of lighting and climate control. He has authored over 80 publications which have accumulated over 900 citations.

In 1987, for the conference Lighting in museums, galleries and historic houses (Museums Association, UKIC, and the Group of Designers and Interpreters for Museums) Stefan was asked to provide a critical review of the literature on light damage and its implications for museums.  He is pleased to be able to present a retrospective on thirty years of developments, lack of developments, and lessons for the future.

In 1989, he developed the CCI Light Damage Slide Rule, and twenty years later, developed its web based replacement, the CCI Light Damage Calculator [link here]. In 1990, he proposed that lighting exposure guidelines be based on explicit consideration of an object’s purpose, its required lifetime, and its specific vulnerability, not on fixed rules and not on false generalizations across media, e.g., all paper objects, all paintings, etc.) [article here]

In 1997, he applied the CIE model of visual performance to the museum visitor’s task, and showed that Thomson’s guesstimate of a 50 lux benchmark could be derived explicitly for a task of moderate difficulty on an object of moderate reflectivity, moderate contrast, moderate detail, but only for a young observer. He derived rules of thumb for adjusting the intensity for older viewers, darker objects, softer contrast. [article here]

He is the author of CCI’s current web pages on light and UV, as well as those on incorrect relative humidity and incorrect temperature. His data tables on the sensitivity of various materials to light, developed for CCI training workshops, were used in the publications Museum and Gallery Lighting (IESNA RP-30-96) and in Control of Damage to Museum Objects by Optical Radiation Publication, CIE 157:2004.

He co-organized workshops on museum lighting in 1997 and 2007 for the American Institute for Conservation, and in 2011 for CCI, with Kit Cuttle and Jim Druzik. For that workshop, Jim and Stefan developed a text on solid state lighting for museums, which has been widely distributed. In 2014 the US Department of Energy surveyed 979 museums who had obtained the report and analyzed their experience of LED lighting. [article here] Completely revised guidelines are currently in preparation for the CCI web page.

Stefan’s other work has been in climate control and risk management. He was lead author for the humidity and temperature specifications in the “Museums, Libraries, and Archives” chapter of the ASHRAE Applications Handbook, (editions 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015) and author of the CCI Technical Bulletin # 23 Guidelines for Humidity and Temperature for Canadian Archives. At the invitation of ICOM and UNESCO he wrote the chapter on “Collection Preservation” in Running a museum: a practical handbook, 2005, ed. P. Boylan, p. 51-90. (available in 5 languages on the UNESCO site). In partnership with ICCROM and Instituut Collectie Nederland (ICN, now RCE), he developed and taught the course Reducing Risks to Collections (Ottawa 2003, Rome 2005, Ottawa 2006, Sibiu 2007, Beijing and Quito 2009, Istanbul 2011, Tianjin 2014).